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The character was created by artist and writerand first appeared in 27 in 1939.
Originally named the "Bat-Man," the character is also referred to by such epithets as the Caped Crusader, theand the World's Greatest Detective.
Batman's is Bruce Wayne, a wealthy American, and owner of.
After witnessing the murder of his parents and as a child, he swore vengeance against criminals, an oath tempered by a sense of justice.
Bruce Wayne trains himself physically and intellectually and crafts a persona to fight crime.
Batman operates in the fictional with assistance from various supporting characters, including his butlerpolice commissionerand vigilante allies such as.
Unlike most superheroes, Batman does not possess any inhuman.
He does, however, possess a genius-level intellect, is a peerless martial artist, and his vast wealth affords him an extraordinary arsenal of weaponry and equipment.
A large assortment of villains make up Batman'sincluding histhe.
The character became popular soon after his introduction in 1939 and gained his own comic book title,the following year.
As the decades went on, differing interpretations of the character emerged.
The late 1960s television series used a aesthetic, which continued to be associated with the character for years after the show ended.
Various creators worked to return the character to his dark roots, culminating in 1986 with by.
The success of ' live-action have helped maintain the character's prominence in mainstream culture.
Batman has been licensed and featured infrom radio to television and film, and appears in merchandise sold around the world, such as apparel, toys, and video games.
Batman has been depicted in both film and television by,,and.
In response, created "the Bat-Man".
Collaborator recalled that "Kane had an idea for a character called 'Batman,' and he'd like me to see the drawings.
I went over to Kane's, and he had drawn a character who looked very much like Superman with kind of.
He had two stiff wings that were sticking out, looking like bat wings.
And under it was a big sign.
The bat-wing-like cape was suggested by Bob Kane, inspired as a child by 's sketch of an flying device.
Finger suggested giving the character a instead of a simple domino mask, a cape instead of wings, and gloves; he also recommended removing the red sections from the original costume.
Finger said he devised the name Bruce Wayne for the character's secret identity: "Bruce Wayne's first name came fromthe patriot.
Wayne, being a playboy, was a man of gentry.
I searched for a name that would suggest colonialism.
I tried Adams, Hancock.
Kane and Finger drew upon contemporary 1930s popular culture for inspiration regarding much of the Bat-Man's look, personality, methods, and weaponry.
Details find predecessors in, headlines, and autobiographical details referring to Kane himself.
As an aristocratic hero with a double identity, Batman had predecessors in created by1903 and created by1919.
Like them, Batman performed his heroic deeds in secret, averted suspicion by playing aloof in public, and marked his games for android tablets with a signature symbol.
Kane noted the influence of the films 1920 and 1930 in the creation of the character's iconography.
Finger, drawing inspiration from pulp heroes like,andmade the character a master sleuth.
In his 1989 autobiography, Kane detailed Finger's contributions to Batman's creation: One day I called Bill and said, 'I have a new character called the Bat-Man and I've made some crude, elementary sketches I'd like you to look at.
At the time, I only had a small domino mask, like the one Robin later wore, on Batman's face.
Bill said, 'Why not make him look more like a bat and put a hood on him, and take the eyeballs out and just put slits for eyes to make him look more mysterious?
I thought that red and black would be a good combination.
Bill said that the costume was too bright: 'Color it dark grey to make it look more ominous.
As Bill and I talked, we realized that these wings would get cumbersome when Bat-Man was in action and changed them into a cape, scalloped to look like bat wings when he was fighting or swinging down on a rope.
Also, he didn't have any gloves on, and we added them so that he wouldn't leave fingerprints.
Golden age Subsequent creation credit Kane signed away ownership in the character in exchange for, among other compensation, a mandatory byline on all Batman comics.
This byline did not originally say batman comics for free created by Bob Kane"; his name was simply written on the title page of each story.
The name disappeared from the comic book in the mid-1960s, replaced by credits for each story's actual writer and artists.
In the late 1970s, when and began receiving a "created by" credit on the Superman titles, along with being given the byline for creatingBatman stories began saying "Created by Bob Kane" in addition to the other credits.
Finger did not receive the same recognition.
While he had received credit for other DC work since the 1940s, he began, in the 1960s, to receive limited acknowledgment for his Batman writing; in the letters page of Batman 169 February 1965 for example, editor names him as the creator of theone of Batman's recurring villains.
However, Finger's contract left him only with his writing page rate and no byline.
Kane wrote, "Bill was disheartened by the lack of major accomplishments in his career.
He felt that he had not used his creative potential to its fullest and that success had passed him by.
He recalled Finger resenting his position, stating in a 2005 interview with : Bob made him more insecure, because while he slaved working on Batman, he wasn't sharing in any of the glory or the money that Bob began to make, which is why.
That was one thing I would never forgive Bob for, was not to take care of Bill or recognize his vital role in the creation of Batman.
As with Siegel and Shuster, it should have been the same, the same co-creator credit in the strip, writer, and artist.
This statement is fraudulent and entirely untrue.
However, if one wants the 'credit', then one has to cease being a 'ghost' or follower and become a leader or innovator.
In September 2015, revealed that Finger would be receiving credit for his role in Batman's creation on the 2016 superhero film and the second season of after a deal was worked out between the Finger family and DC.
Finger received credit as a creator of Batman for the first time in a comic in October 2015 with Batman and Eternal 3 and Batman: Arkham Knight Genesis 3.
The updated acknowledgment for the character appeared as "Batman created by Bob Kane with Bill Finger".
Early years Batman made his debut in 27 May 1939.
The first Batman story, "", was published in Detective Comics 27 May 1939.
Finger said, "Batman was originally written in the style of the pulps", and this influence was evident with Batman showing little remorse over killing or maiming criminals.
Batman proved a hit character, and he received his own solo title in 1940 while continuing to star in Detective Comics.
By that time, Detective Comics was the top-selling and most influential publisher in the industry; Batman and the company's other major hero, Superman, were the cornerstones of the company's success.
The two characters were featured side-by-side as the stars ofwhich was originally titled World's Best Comics when it debuted in fall 1940.
Creators including and also worked on the strips during this period.
Over the course of the first few Batman strips elements were added to the character and the artistic depiction of Batman evolved.
Kane noted that within six issues he drew the character's jawline more pronounced, and lengthened the ears on the costume.
The character's origin was revealed in 33 Nov.
Written by Finger, it depicts a young Bruce Wayne witnessing his parents' murder at the hands of a mugger.
The early, pulp-inflected portrayal of Batman started to soften in Detective Comics 38 April 1940 with the introduction ofBatman's junior counterpart.
Robin was introduced, based on Finger's suggestion, because Batman needed a "" with whom Batman could talk.
Sales nearly doubled, despite Kane's preference for a solo Batman, and it sparked a proliferation of "kid sidekicks".
The first issue of the solo spin-off series was notable not only for introducing two of his most persistent enemies, the andbut for a pre-Robin inventory story, originally meant for Detective Comics 38, in which Batman shoots some monstrous giants to death.
That story prompted editor to decree that the character could no longer kill or use a gun.
By 1942, the writers and artists behind the Batman comics had established most of the basic elements of the Batman mythos.
In the years following World War II, DC Comics "adopted a postwar editorial direction that increasingly de-emphasized social commentary in favor of lighthearted juvenile fantasy".
The impact of this editorial approach was evident in Batman comics of the postwar period; removed from the "bleak and menacing world" of the strips of the early 1940s, Batman was instead portrayed as a respectable citizen and paternal figure that inhabited a "bright and colorful" environment.
Silver and Bronze Ages 1950s and early 1960s Batman was one of the few superhero characters to be continuously published as interest in the genre waned during the 1950s.
In the story "The Mightiest Team in the World" in 76 June 1952Batman teams up with Superman for the first time and the pair discover each other's secret identity.
Following the success of this story, World's Finest Comics was revamped so it featured stories starring both heroes together, instead of the separate Batman and Superman features that had been running before.
The team-up of the characters was "a financial success in an era when those were few and far between"; this series of stories ran until the book's cancellation in 1986.
Batman comics were among those criticized when the comic book industry came under scrutiny with the publication of psychologist 's book in 1954.
Wertham's thesis was that children imitated crimes committed in comic books, and that these works corrupted the morals of the youth.
Wertham criticized Batman comics for their supposed overtones and argued that Batman and Robin were portrayed as lovers.
Wertham's criticisms raised a public outcry during the 1950s, eventually leading to the establishment of thea code that is no longer in use by the comic book industry.
The tendency towards a "sunnier Batman" in the postwar years intensified after the introduction of the Comics Code.
Scholars have suggested that the characters of in 1956 and the pre- in 1961 were introduced in part to refute the allegation that Batman and Robin were gay, and the stories took on a campier, lighter feel.
In the late 1950s, Batman stories gradually became more science fiction-oriented, an attempt at mimicking the success of other DC characters that had dabbled in the genre.
New characters such as Batwoman,and were introduced.
Batman's adventures often involved odd transformations or bizarre space aliens.
In 1960, Batman debuted as a member of the in 28 Feb.
Bob Kane noted that, as a result, DC was "planning to kill Batman off altogether".
In response to this, editor was assigned to the Batman titles.
He presided over drastic changes, beginning with 1964's Detective Comics 327 May 1964which was cover-billed as the "New Look".
Schwartz introduced changes designed to make Batman more contemporary, and to return him to more detective-oriented stories.
He brought in artist to help overhaul the character.
The was redesigned, and Batman's costume was modified to incorporate a yellow ellipse behind the bat-insignia.
The space aliens, time travel, and characters of the 1950s such as Batwoman, Ace, and Bat-Mite were retired.
Bruce Wayne's butler Alfred was killed off though his death was quickly reversed while a new female relative here the Wayne family, Aunt Harriet, came to live with Bruce Wayne and.
The debut of the television series in 1966 had a profound influence on the character.
The success of the series increased sales throughout the comic book industry, and Batman reached a circulation of close to 900,000 copies.
Elements such as the character of and the show's nature were introduced into the comics; the series also initiated the return of Alfred.
Although both the comics and TV show were successful for a time, the camp approach eventually wore thin and the show was canceled in 1968.
In the aftermath, the Batman comics themselves lost popularity once again.
As Julius Schwartz noted, "When the television show was a success, I was asked to be campy, and of course when the show faded, so did the comic books.
O'Neil said his idea was "simply to take it back to where it started.
I went to the DC library and read some of the early stories.
I tried to get a sense of what Kane and Finger were after.
Few stories were true collaborations between O'Neil, Adams, Schwartz, and inkerand in actuality these men were mixed and matched continue reading various other creators during the 1970s; nevertheless the influence of their work was "tremendous".
Giordano said: "We went back to a grimmer, darker Batman, and I think that's why these stories did so well.
Regardless, circulation continued to drop through the 1970s and 1980s, hitting an all-time low in 1985.
Modern age The Dark Knight Returns Cover art for the first issue of The Dark Knight Returns 's limited series February—June 1986 returned the character to his darker roots, both in atmosphere and tone.
The comic book, which tells the story of a 55-year-old Batman coming out of retirement in a possible future, reinvigorated interest in the character.
The Dark Knight Returns was a financial success and has since become one of the medium's most noted touchstones.
The series also sparked a major resurgence in the character's popularity.
That year Dennis O'Neil took over as editor of the Batman titles and set the template for the portrayal of Batman following DC's status quo-altering miniseries.
O'Neil operated under the assumption that he was hired to revamp the character and as a result tried to instill a different tone in the books than had gone before.
One outcome of this new approach was the "" storyline in Batman 404—407 Feb.
Writer and artist continued this dark trend with 1988's 48-pagein which the Joker, attempting to drive insane, cripples Gordon's daughterand then kidnaps and tortures go online for free minecraft commissioner, physically and psychologically.
The Batman comics garnered major attention in 1988 when DC Comics created a for readers to call to vote on whetherthe second Robin, lived or died.
Voters decided in favor of Jason's death by a narrow margin of 28 votes see.
Knightfall The 1993 "" story arc introduced a new villain,who critically injures Batman after pushing him to the limits of his endurance.
Jean-Paul Valley, known asis called upon to wear the Batsuit during Bruce Wayne's convalescence.
Writers, and worked on the Batman titles during "Knightfall", and would also contribute to other Batman crossovers throughout the 1990s.
At the conclusion of "No Man's Land", O'Neil stepped down as editor and was replaced by.
Another writer who rose to prominence on the Batman comic series, was.
Along with longtime collaborator Tim Sale, they wrote two miniseries and that pit an early in his career version of Batman against his entire includingwhose origin was re-envisioned by Loeb while dealing with various mysteries involving and.
In 2003, Loeb teamed with artist to work on another mystery arc: "" for the main Batman book.
The 12—issue storyline has Batman and Catwoman teaming up against Batman's entire rogues gallery, including an apparently resurrectedwhile seeking to find the identity of the mysterious supervillain.
While the character of Hush failed to catch on with readers, the arc was a sales success for DC.
The series became 1 on the sales chart for the first time since Batman 500 Oct.
Written by Frank Miller and drawn by Jim Lee, the series was a commercial success for DC Comics, although it was widely panned by critics for its writing and strong depictions of violence.
Starting in 2006, and were the regular writers of Batman and Detective Comics, with Morrison reincorporating controversial elements of Batman lore.
Most notably of these elements were the science fiction themed storylines of the 1950s Batman comics, which Morrison revised as hallucinations Batman suffered under the influence of various mind-bending gases and extensive sensory deprivation training.
Morrison's run climaxed with "Batman R.
In the 2009 miniseriesWayne's former protégé Dick Grayson becomes the new Batman, and Wayne's son Damian becomes the new Robin.
In June 2009, Judd Winick returned to writing Batman, while Grant Morrison was given his own series, titled.
In 2010, the storyline saw Bruce travel through history, eventually returning to the present day.
Although he reclaimed the mantle of Batman, he also allowed Grayson to continue being Batman as well.
Bruce decided to take his crime-fighting cause globally, which is the central focus of.
DC Comics would later announce that Grayson would be the main character in Batman, Detective Comics, and Batman and Robin, while Wayne would be the main character in Batman Incorporated.
Also, Bruce appeared in another ongoing series.
The New 52 See also: In September 2011, DC Comics' entire line of superhero comic books, including its Batman franchise, were canceled and relaunched with new 1 issues as part of.
Bruce Wayne is the only character to be identified as Batman and is featured in,and.
Dick Grayson returns to the mantle of Nightwing and appears in his own ongoing series.
While many characters have their histories significantly altered to attract new readers, Batman's history remains mostly intact.
Batman Incorporated was relaunched in 2012—2013 to complete the "Leviathan" storyline.
With the beginning of the New 52, was the writer of the Batman title.
His first major story arc was "", where Batman confronts thea secret society that has controlled Gotham for centuries.
The second story arc was "", where the Joker returns to Gotham and simultaneously attacks each member of the Batman family.
The third story arc was "", which redefined Batman's origin in The New 52.
It followed Batman 0, published in June 2012, which explored the character's early years.
The final storyline before the "" 2015 storyline was "", depicting the supposed final battle between Batman and the Joker when he unleashes the deadly Endgame virus onto Gotham City.
The storyline ends with Batman and the Joker's supposed deaths.
Starting with Batman vol.
However, Bruce Wayne is soon revealed to be alive, albeit now suffering almost total amnesia of his life as Batman and only remembering his life as Bruce Wayne through what he has learned from Alfred.
Bruce Wayne finds happiness and proposes to his girlfriend,but Mr.
Bloom heavily injures Jim Gordon and takes control of Gotham City and threatens to destroy the city by energizing a particle reactor to create a "strange star" for no worms download free swallow the city.
Bruce Wayne discovers the truth that he was Batman and after talking to a stranger who smiles a lot it is heavily implied that this is the amnesic Joker he forces Alfred to implant his memories as Batman, but at the cost of his memories as the reborn Bruce Wayne.
He returns and helps Jim Gordon defeat Mr.
Bloom and shut down the reactor.
Gordon gets his job back as the commissioner, and the government Batman project is shut down.
In 2015, DC Comics releasedthe sequel to Frank Miller's The Dark Knight Returns and The Dark Knight Strikes Again.
DC Universe In June 2016, the event relaunched DC Comics' entire line of comic book titles.
The series then began shipping twice-monthly as a third volume, starting with Batman vol.
The third volume of Batman was written byand artwork was provided by and Mikel JanĂ­n.
The series introduced two vigilantes, Gotham and Gotham Girl.
Detective Comics resumed its original numbering system starting with June 2016's 934, and the New 52 series was labeled as volume 2 with issues numbering from 1-52.
Similarly with the Batman title, the New 52 issues were labeled as volume 2 and encompassed issues 1-52.
Writer and artists and Alvaro Martinez worked on Detective Comics 934, and the series initially featured a team consisting of,andled by Batman and.
DC Comics ended the Rebirth branding in December 2017, opting to include everything under a larger "DC Universe" banner and naming.
The continuity established by Learn more here continues across DC's comic book titles, including volume one of Detective Comics and the third volume of Batman.
Characterization Bruce Wayne DC Comics concept art of Bruce Wayne Batman's is Bruce Wayne, a wealthy American industrialist.
As a child, Bruce witnessed the murder of his parents, andwhich ultimately led him to craft the Batman persona and seek justice against criminals.
He resides on the outskirts of Gotham City in his personal residence.
Wayne averts suspicion by acting the part of a superficial playboy idly living off his family's fortune and the profits ofhis inherited conglomerate.
He supports philanthropic causes through his nonprofit Wayne Foundation, but is more widely known as a celebrity socialite.
In public, he frequently appears in the company of high-status women, which encourages tabloid gossip.
Although Bruce Wayne leads an active romantic life, his vigilante activities as Batman account for most of his time.
Various modern stories have portrayed the extravagant, playboy image of Bruce Wayne as a facade.
This is in contrast to the post-Crisis Superman, whose persona is the true identity, while the Superman persona is the facade.
In Batman Unmasked, a television documentary about the psychology of the character, behavioral scientist notes that Batman's personality is driven by Bruce Wayne's inherent humanity; that "Batman, for all its benefits and for all of the time Bruce Wayne devotes to it, is ultimately a tool for Bruce Wayne's efforts to make the world better".
Bruce Waynes principles include the desire to prevent future harm and a vow not to kill.
Bruce Wayne believes that our actions define us, we fail for a reason and anything is possible.
Writers of Batman and Superman stories have often compared and contrasted the two.
Interpretations vary depending on the writer, the story, and the timing.
He notes an equally stark contrast in their real identities.
Bruce Wayne and Clark Kent belong to different social classes: "Bruce has a butler, Clark has a boss.
James Musler's book Unleashing the Superhero in Us All explores the extent to which Bruce Wayne's vast personal wealth is important in his life story, and the crucial role it plays in his efforts as Batman.
Will Brooker notes in his book Batman Unmasked that "the confirmation of the Batman's identity lies with the young audience.
There's just a sense about him: 'they trust him.
Criminals are a superstitious cowardly lot.
So my disguise must be able to strike terror into their hearts.
I must be a creature of the night, black, terrible.
The details and tone of Batman comic books have varied over the years due to different creative teams.
Dennis O'Neil noted that character consistency was not a major concern during early editorial regimes: " did a Batman in Batman and Detective and did a Batman in the Brave and the Bold and apart from the costume they bore very little resemblance to each other.
Julie and Murray did not want to coordinate their efforts, nor were they asked to do so.
Continuity was not important in those days.
Bob Kane and Bill Play mega run online for discussed Batman's background and decided that "there's nothing more traumatic than having your parents murdered before your eyes".
Despite his trauma, he sets his mind on studying to become a scientist and to train his body into physical perfection to fight crime in as Batman, an inspired idea from Wayne's insight into the criminal mind.
Another of Batman's characterizations is that of a vigilante; in order to stop evil that started with the death of his parents, he must sometimes break the law himself.
Although manifested differently by being re-told by different artists, it is nevertheless that the details and the prime components of Batman's origin have never varied at all in the comic books, the "reiteration of the basic origin events holds together otherwise divergent expressions".
The origin is the source of the character's traits and attributes, which play out in many of the character's adventures.
He also speaks over 40 different languages.
Batman is often treated as a vigilante by other characters in his stories.
Frank Miller views the character as "a figure, a force for that imposes an individual order".
Dressed as a bat, Batman deliberately cultivates a frightening persona in order to aid him in crime-fighting, a fear that originates from the criminals' own guilty.
Miller is often credited visit web page reintroducing anti-heroic traits into Batman's characterization, such as his brooding personality, willingness to use violence and torture, and increasingly alienated behavior.
Batman, shortly a year after his debut and the introduction of Robin, was changed in 1940 after DC editor Whitney Ellsworth felt the character would be tainted by his lethal methods and DC established their own ethical code, subsequently he was retconned as having a stringent moral code.
Miller's Batman was closer to the original pre-Robin version, who was willing to kill criminals if necessary.
Others Main article: On several occasions former Robin has served as Batman; most notably in 2009 while Wayne was believed dead, and served as a second Batman even after Wayne returned in 2010.
As part of DC'sGrayson returned to being Nightwing following the Flashpoint crossover event.
In an interview withMorrison detailed that having Dick Grayson as Batman and as Robin represented a "reverse" of the normal dynamic between Batman and Robin, with, "a more light-hearted and spontaneous Batman and a scowling, badass Robin".
Morrison explained his intentions for the new characterization of Batman: "Dick Grayson is kind of this consummate superhero.
The guy has been Batman's partner since he was a kid, he's led theand he's trained with everybody in the DC Universe.
So he's a very different kind of Batman.
He's a lot easier; He's a lot looser and more relaxed.
Jean Paul Valley, also known asassumed the cowl after the events of the saga.
Additionally, members of the groupBruce Wayne's experiment at franchising his brand of vigilantism, have at times stood in as the official Batman in cities around the world.
Various others have also taken up the role of Batman in stories set in alternative universes and possible futures, including, among them, various former proteges of Bruce Wayne.
Supporting characters Main article: Batman's interactions with both villains and cohorts have, over time, developed a strong supporting cast of characters.
Adversaries Main article: Batman faces a variety of foes ranging from common criminals to outlandish supervillains.
Many of them mirror aspects of the Batman's character and development, often having tragic origin stories that lead them to a life of crime.
These foes are commonly referred to as Batman's.
Batman's "most implacable foe" is thea homicidal maniac with a clown-like appearance.
The Joker is considered by critics to be his perfect adversary, since he is the antithesis of Batman in personality and appearance; the Joker has a maniacal demeanor with a colorful appearance, while Batman has a serious and resolute demeanor with a dark appearance.
Other long time recurring foes that are part of Batman's rogues gallery include a antiheroine who is an occasional ally and romantic interestthe,thethe,, and among others.
Many of Batman's adversaries are often psychiatric patients at.
Allies Alfred Main article: Batman's butler,first appeared in Batman 16 1943.
He serves as Bruce Wayne's loyal father figure and is one of the few persons to know his secret identity.
Alfred raised Bruce after his parents' death and knows him on a very personal level.
He is sometimes portrayed as a sidekick to Batman and the only other resident of Wayne Manor aside from Bruce.
They include:Commissioner Gordon's daughter, who has fought crime under the vigilante identity of and, during a period in which she was confined to a wheelchair due to a gunshot wound inflicted by the Joker, the Oracle;the sole surviving member of a mob family turned vigilante, who has worked with Batman on occasion, primarily as and as Batgirl for a brief stint;the daughter of professional assassinsandwho succeeded Bertinelli as Batgirl.
Civiliansa technology specialist and Bruce Wayne's business manager who is well aware of his employer's clandestine vigilante activities;a family friend who like Alfred became a surrogate parental figure to Bruce Wayne after the deaths of his parents, and is also aware of his secret identity;an investigative journalist who often reports on Batman's activities for the Gotham Gazette;Batman's canine partner who was mainly active in the 1950s and 1960s; andan wwe game download for pc setup imp mostly active in the 1960s who idolizes Batman.
GCPD Main article: As Batman's ally in the Gotham City police, debuted along with Batman in Detective Comics 27 and has been a consistent presence ever since.
As a crime-fightinghe shares Batman's goals while offering, much as the character of does in stories, a normal person's perspective on the work of Batman's extraordinary genius.
Justice League Main article: Batman is at times a member of superhero teams such as the and the.
Batman has often been paired in adventures with his Justice League teammate Superman, notably as the co-stars of World's Finest and series.
In pre-Crisis continuity, the two are depicted as close friends; however, in current continuity, they are still close friends but an uneasy relationship, with an emphasis on their differing views on crime-fighting and justice.
Then, with some gadget from his utility belt, he reminds me that he has an extraordinarily inventive mind.
And how lucky I am to be able to call on him.
Bill Finger stated that he wanted to include Robin because "Batman didn't have anyone to talk to, and it got a little tiresome always having him thinking.
In the 1970s he finally grew up, went off to college and became the hero.
A second Robin,appeared in the 1980s.
In the stories he was eventually badly beaten and then killed please click for source an explosion set by the Joker, but was later revived.
He used the Joker's old persona, theand became an vigilante with no qualms about using or.
The third Robin in mainstream comics iswho first appeared in 1989.
He went on to star in his own comic series, and currently goes bya variation on the traditional Robin persona.
In the first decade of the new millennium, served as the fourth in-universe Robin between stints as her self-made vigilante identity The Spoiler, and later as.
After Stephanie Brown's apparent death, Drake resumed the role of Robin for a time.
The role eventually passed tothe ten-year-old son of Bruce Wayne andin the late 2000s.
Damian's tenure as du jour Robin ended when the character was killed off in the pages of in 2013.
Batman's next young sidekick is Harper Row, a streetwise young woman who avoids the name Robin but followed the theme nonetheless; she debuted the codename and identity of in 2014.
Unlike the Robins, Bluebird is willing and permitted to use a gun, albeit ; her weapon of choice is a modified rifle that fires taser rounds.
In 2015, a new series began titledfocused on a group of teenagers using the Robin persona to fight crime in Gotham City.
Wayne family is the biological daughter of and of an established in the early 1960s where the stories took place.
Romantic interests Writers have varied in the approach over the years to the "playboy" aspect of Bruce Wayne's persona.
Some writers show his playboy reputation as a manufactured illusion to support his mission as Batman, while others have depicted Bruce Wayne as genuinely enjoying the benefits of being "Gotham's most eligible bachelor".
Bruce Wayne has been portrayed as being romantically linked with many women throughout his various incarnations.
The most significant relationships occurred with Selina Kyle, who is also andas both women gave birth to his biological offsprings, Helena Wayne and Damian Wayne, respectively.
Batman's first romantic interest was in 31 Sept.
Some of Batman's romantic interests have been women with a respected status in society, such as, and.
Batman has also been romantically involved with allies, such as, andand with villains, such asJezebel Jet,and.
Catwoman is Batman's most enduring romance.
While most of Batman's romantic relationships tend to be short in duration, has been his most enduring romance throughout the years.
The attraction between Batman and Catwoman, whose real name is Selina Kyle, is present in nearly every version and medium in which the characters appear.
Although Catwoman is typically portrayed as a villain, Batman and Catwoman have worked together in achieving common goals and are usually depicted as having a romantic connection.
In an early 1980s storyline, Selina Kyle and Bruce Wayne develop a relationship, in which the closing panel of the final story shows her referring to Batman as "Bruce".
However, a change in the editorial team brought a swift end to that storyline and, apparently, all that transpired during the story arc.
Out of costume, Bruce and Selina develop a romantic relationship during.
The story shows Selina saving Bruce from Poison Ivy.
However, the relationship ends when Bruce rejects her advances twice; once as Bruce and once as Batman.
Inhe stands her up on two holidays, causing her to leave him for good and to leave Gotham City for a while.
When the two meet at an opera many years later, during the events of the twelve-issue story arc called "", Bruce comments that the two no longer have a relationship as Bruce and Selina.
However, "Hush" sees Batman and Catwoman allied against the entire and rekindling their romantic relationship.
In "'Hush", Batman reveals his true identity to Catwoman.
Thea character from a parallel world, partners with and marries the reformed Earth-Two Selina Kyle, as shown in 211.
They have a daughter namedwho becomes the Huntress.
Along with Dick Grayson, thethe Huntress takes the role as Gotham's protector once Bruce Wayne retires to become police commissioner, a position he occupies until he https://fraia-kino.ru/for/download-spiderman-game-for-nokia-5130.html killed during one final adventure as Batman.
Batman and Catwoman are shown having a sexual encounter on the roof of a building in Catwoman vol.
Following the 2016 DC Rebirth continuity reboot, the two once again have a sexual encounter on top of a building in Batman vol.
Following the 2016 DC Rebirth continuity reboot, Batman and Catwoman work together in the third volume of Batman.
The two also have a romantic relationship, in which they are shown having a sexual encounter on a rooftop and sleeping together.
Bruce proposes to Selina in Batman vol.
When he does so, she says, "Yes.
Towards the end, the story is flash-forwarded to the future, in which Bruce Wayne and Selina Kyle are a married couple in their golden years.
Bruce receives a terminal medical diagnosis, and Selina cares for him until his death.
Abilities Skills and training Batman has no inherent superhuman powers; he relies on "his own scientific knowledge, detective skills, and athletic prowess".
Batman's inexhaustible wealth gives him access to advanced technologies, and as a proficienthe is able to use and modify these technologies to his advantage.
In the stories, Batman is regarded as one of the world's greatest detectives, if not the world's greatest crime solver.
Batman has been repeatedly described as having a genius-level intellect, being one of the greatest martial artists in the DC Universe, and having peak human physical conditioning.
As ahis knowledge and expertise in countless disciplines is nearly unparalleled by any other character in the DC Universe.
He has traveled the world acquiring the skills needed to aid him in his endeavors as Batman.
In the story arc, Superman considers Batman to be one of the most brilliant minds on the planet.
Batman has trained extensively in various martial arts, mastering many different types, making him one of the best hand-to-hand fighters in the DC Universe.
Superman describes Batman as "the most dangerous man on Earth", able to defeat an entire team of superpowered extraterrestrials by himself in order to rescue his imprisoned teammates in Grant Morrison's first storyline in JLA.
Batman is strongly disciplined, and he has the ability to function under great physical pain and resist most forms of and.
He is a master ofmultilingual, and an expert inoften gathering information under the identity of a notorious gangster named Matches Malone.
Batman is highly skilled in stealth movement andwhich allows him to appear and disappear at will and to break free of nearly inescapable with little to no harm.
Batman is an expert in techniques and his and frightening appearance alone is often all that is needed in getting information from suspects.
Despite having the potential to harm his enemies, Batman's most defining characteristic is his strong commitment to justice and his reluctance to take a life.
This unyielding moral rectitude has earned him the mac player free one for real of several heroes in the DC Universe, most notably that of and.
Among physical and other crime fighting related training, he is also proficient at other types of skills.
Some of these include being a licensed pilot in order to operate theas well as being able to operate other types of machinery.
In some publications, he underwent some magician training.
In the comic, The Many Deaths of the Batman which focused on a former demolitions teacher of Batman who killed Batman's other more info which included a race car driver, chemist, body builder, and gymnast all of whom were experts in their field.
Technology Batman utilizes a vast arsenal of specialized, high-tech vehicles and gadgets in his war against crime, the designs of which usually share a bat motif.
Batman historian credits with creating the concept of Batman's arsenal with the introduction of the utility belt in Detective Comics 29 July 1939 and the first bat-themed weapons the and the "Batgyro" in Detective Comics 31 and 32 Sept.
Personal armor Main article: Batman's costume incorporates the imagery of a bat in order to frighten criminals.
The details of the Batman costume change repeatedly through various decades, stories, media and artists' interpretations, but the most distinctive elements remain consistent: a scallop-hem cape; a cowl covering most of the face; a pair of bat-like ears; a stylized bat emblem on the chest; and the ever-present utility belt.
Finger and Kane originally conceptualized Batman as having a black cape and cowl and grey suit, but conventions in coloring called for black to be highlighted with blue.
Hence, the costume's colors have appeared in the comics as dark blue and grey; as well as black and grey.
In the 's and films, Batman comics for free has been depicted as completely black with a bat in the middle surrounded by a yellow background.
Batman's aids in his combat against enemies, having the properties of both and.
It protects him from gunfire and other significant impacts.
His gloves typically feature three scallops that protrude from long, gauntlet-like cuffs, although in his earliest appearances he wore short, plain gloves without the scallops.
The overall look of the character, particularly the length of the cowl's ears and of the cape, varies greatly depending on the artist.
Dennis Https://fraia-kino.ru/for/download-facebook-gameroom-for-windows-xp.html said, "We now say that Batman has two hundred suits hanging in the Batcave so they don't have to look the same.
Everybody loves to draw Batman, and everybody wants to put their own spin on it.
Batman also has an aircraft called the later called the "Batwing"along with various other means of transportation.
In proper practice, the "bat" prefix as in Batmobile or batarang is rarely used by Batman himself when referring to his equipment, particularly after some portrayals primarily the 1960s and the animated series stretched the practice to proportions.
For example, the 1960s television show depicted a, andamong other bat-themed vehicles.
The 1960s television series Batman has an arsenal that includes such "bat-" names as the bat-computer, bat-scanner, bat-radar, bat-cuffs, bat-pontoons, bat-drinking water dispenser, bat-camera with polarized bat-filter, bat- bat-spray, and bat-rope.
The storyline "A Death in the Family" suggests that given Batman's grim nature, he is unlikely to have adopted the "bat" prefix on his own.
InBatman tells that the original Robin came up with the name "Batmobile" when he was young, since that is what a kid would call Batman's vehicle.
The Batmobile was redesigned in 2011 when DC Comics its entire line of comic books, with the batmobile being given heavier armor and new aesthetics.
Utility belt Main article: Batman keeps most of his field equipment in his.
Over the years it has shown to contain batman comics for free assortment of crime-fighting tools, weapons, and investigative and technological instruments.
Different versions of the belt have these items stored in compartments, often as pouches or hard cylinders attached evenly around it.
Batman is often depicted as carrying a projectile which shoots a retractable grappling hook attached to a cable.
This allows him to attach to distant objects, be propelled into the air, and thus swing from the rooftops of Gotham City.
An exception to the range of Batman's equipment arewhich he refuses to https://fraia-kino.ru/for/ship-games-online-download-for-windows-7.html on principle, since a gun was used in his parents' murder.
Bat-Signal Main article: When Batman is needed, the Gotham City police activate a with a bat-shaped insignia over the lens called the Bat-Signal, which shines into the night sky, creating a bat-symbol on a passing cloud which can be seen from any point in Gotham.
The origin of the signal varies, depending on the continuity and medium.
In various incarnations, most notably the 1960sCommissioner Gordon also has a dedicated phone line, dubbed the Bat-Phone, connected to a bright red telephone in the TV series which sits on a wooden base and has a transparent top.
The line connects directly to Batman's residence,specifically both to a similar phone sitting on the desk in Bruce Wayne's study and the extension phone in the Batcave.
Batcave Main article: The Batcave is Batman's secret headquarters, consisting of batman comics for free series of subterranean caves beneath his mansion.
As his command center, the Batcave serves multiple purposes; supercomputer, surveillance, redundant power-generators, forensics lab, medical infirmary, private study, training dojo, fabrication workshop, arsenal, hangar and garage.
It houses the vehicles and equipment Batman uses in his campaign to fight crime.
It is also a trophy room and storage facility for Batman's unique memorabilia collected over the years from various cases he has worked on.
In both the comic 45 and the 2005 filmthe cave is said to have been part of the.
Fictional character biography Batman's history has undergone many revisions, both minor and major.
Elements of the character's history have varied greatly.
Scholars and Roberta E.
Pearson noted in the early 1990s, "Unlike some fictional characters, the Batman has no primary urtext set in a specific period, but has rather existed in a plethora of equally valid texts constantly appearing over more than five decades.
Art by Bob Kane.
The central fixed event in the Batman stories is the character's.
As a young boy, Bruce Wayne was horrified and traumatized when he watched his parents, the physician Dr.
Batman refuses to utilize any sort of gun on the principle that a gun was used to murder his parents.
This event drove him to train his body to its peak condition and fight crime in as Batman.
Pearson and Uricchio also noted beyond the origin story and such events as the please click for source of Robin, "Until recently, the fixed and accruing and hence, canonized, events have been few in number", a situation altered by an increased effort by later Batman editors such as Dennis O'Neil to ensure consistency and continuity between stories.
Golden age See also: In Batman's first appearance in Detective Comics 27, he is already operating as a crime-fighter.
Batman's origin is first presented in Detective Comics 33 Nov.
As these comics state, Bruce Wayne is born to Dr.
Thomas Wayne and his wife Martha, two very wealthy and charitable socialites.
Bruce is brought up inand leads a happy and privileged existence until the age of eight, when his parents are killed by a small-time criminal named while on their way home from a movie theater.
That night, Bruce Wayne swears an oath to spend his life fighting crime.
He engages in intense intellectual and physical training; however, he realizes that these skills alone would not be enough.
I must be a creature of the night, black, terrible.
In early strips, Batman's career as click here vigilante earns him the ire of the police.
During this period, Bruce Wayne has a fiancée named.
In Detective Comics 38, Wayne takes in an orphaned circus acrobat,who becomes his vigilante partner.
Batman also becomes a founding member of thealthough he, like Superman, is an honorary member, and thus only participates occasionally.
Batman's relationship with the law thaws quickly, and he is made an honorary member of.
During this time, arrives at Wayne Manor, and after deducing the Dynamic Duo's secret identities, joins their service as their butler.
Silver age The in DC Comics is sometimes held to have begun in 1956 when the publisher introduced as a new, updated version of.
Batman is not significantly changed by the late 1950s peggle for ipad the continuity which would be later referred to as.
The lighter tone Batman had taken in the period between the golden and silver ages led to the stories of the late 1950s and early 1960s that often feature many science-fiction elements, and Batman is not significantly updated in the manner of other characters until Detective Comics 327 May 1964in which Batman reverts to his detective roots, with most science-fiction elements jettisoned from the series.
After the introduction of DC Comics' in the 1960s, DC established that stories from the golden age star thea character from a parallel world.
This version of Batman partners with and marries the reformed Earth-Two Catwoman, Selina Kyle.
The two have a daughter,who becomes the Huntress.
She assumes the position as Gotham's protector along with Dick Grayson, theonce Bruce Wayne retires to become police commissioner.
Wayne holds the position of police commissioner until he is killed during one final adventure as Batman.
Batman titles however often ignored that a distinction had been made between the pre-revamp and post-revamp Batmen since unlike The Flash orBatman comics had been published without interruption through the 1950s and would occasionally make reference to stories from the golden age.
Nevertheless, details of Batman's history were altered or expanded upon through the decades.
Additions include meetings with a future Superman during his youth, his upbringing by his uncle Philip Wayne introduced in Batman 208, Feb.
In 1980 then-editor commissioned the Untold Legend of the Batman to thoroughly chronicle Batman's origin and history.
Batman meets and regularly click here with other heroes during the silver age, most notably Superman, whom he began regularly working alongside in a series of team-ups instarting in 1954 and continuing through the series' cancellation in 1986.
Batman and Superman are usually depicted as close friends.
As a founding member of theBatman appears in its first story, in 1960's 28.
In the 1970s and 1980s, Brave and the Bold became a Batman title, in which Batman teams up with a different superhero each month.
Bronze Age In 1969, Dick Grayson attends college as part of DC Comics' effort to revise the Batman comics.
Additionally, Batman also moves from his mansion, into a atop the Wayne Foundation building in downtown Gotham City, in order to be closer to Gotham City's crime.
Batman's adventures also become somewhat darker and more grim during this period, depicting increasingly violent crimes, including the first appearance since the early golden age of the Joker as a homicidaland the arrival ofa centuries-old terrorist who knows Batman's secret identity.
In the 1980s, Dick Grayson becomes.
In the final issue of Brave and the Bold in 1983, Batman quits the Justice League and forms a new group called the.
He serves as the team's leader until Batman and the Outsiders 32 1986 and the comic subsequently changed its title.
Modern age After the 12-issue Crisis on Infinite Earths, DC Comics the histories of something 3d poker game for android tablet magnificent major characters in an attempt at updating them for contemporary audiences.
Frank Miller retold Batman's origin in the storyline "" from Batman 404—407, which emphasizes a grittier tone in the character.
For example, Gotham's police are mostly corrupt, setting up further need for Batman's existence.
The guardian Phillip Wayne is removed leaving young Bruce to be raised by Alfred Pennyworth.
Additionally, Batman is no longer a founding member of the Justice League of America, although he becomes leader for a short time of a new incarnation of the team launched in 1987.
To help fill in the revised backstory for Batman following Crisis, DC launched a new Batman title called in 1989 and has published various miniseries and one-shot stories since then that largely take place during the "Year One" period.
Subsequently, Batman begins exhibiting an excessive, reckless approach to his crime-fighting, a result of the pain of losing Jason Todd.
Batman works solo until the decade's close, when becomes the new Robin.
Many of the major Batman storylines since the 1990s have been inter-title crossovers that run for a number of issues.
In 1993, DC published "".
During the storyline's first phase, the new villain Bane paralyzes Batman, leading Wayne to ask to take on the role.
After the end of "Knightfall", the storylines split in two directions, following both the Azrael-Batman's adventures, and Bruce Wayne's quest to become Batman once more.
The story arcs realign in "KnightsEnd", as Azrael becomes increasingly violent and is defeated by a healed Bruce Wayne.
Wayne hands the Batman mantle to Dick Grayson then Nightwing for an interim period, while Wayne trains for a return to the role.
The 1994 company-wide crossover storyline "" changes aspects of DC continuity again, including those of Batman.
Noteworthy among these changes is that the general populace and the criminal element now considers Batman an urban legend rather than a known force.
Batman once again becomes a member of the during Grant Morrison's 1996 relaunch of the series, titled JLA.
During this time, Gotham City faces catastrophe in the decade's closing crossover arc.
In 1998's "" storyline, Gotham City is devastated by an earthquake and ultimately cut off from the United States.
Deprived of many of his technological resources, Batman fights to reclaim the city from legions of gangs during 1999's "".
pc worms free download for Batman is able to clear his name, he loses another ally in the form of his new bodyguard Sasha, who is recruited into the organization known as "Checkmate" while stuck in prison due to her refusal to turn state's evidence against her employer.
While he was unable to prove that Luthor was behind the murder of Vesper, Batman does get his revenge with help from in 1—6.
Batman later creates the satellite surveillance system to watch over and, if necessary, kill the other heroes after he remembered.
The revelation of Batman's creation and his tacit responsibility for Blue Beetle's death becomes a driving force in the lead-up to the miniseries, which again restructures DC continuity.
Batman and a team of superheroes destroy Brother Eye and the OMACs, though, at the very end, Batman reaches his apparent breaking point when Alexander Luthor Jr.
Picking up a gun, Batman nearly shoots Luthor in order to avenge his former sidekick, until Wonder Woman convinces him to not pull the trigger.
Following Infinite Crisis, Bruce Wayne, Dick Grayson having recovered from his woundsand Tim Drake retrace the steps Bruce had taken when he originally left Gotham City, to "rebuild Batman".
In the storyline, Batman and Robin return to Gotham City after their year-long absence.
Part of this absence is captured during Week 30 of the 52 series, which shows Batman fighting his inner demons.
Later on in 52, Batman is shown undergoing an intense ritual in.
This becomes an important part of the regular Batman title, which reveals that Batman is reborn as a more effective crime fighter while undergoing this ritual, having "hunted down and ate" the last traces of fear in his mind.
At the end of the "Face the Face" story arc, Bruce officially adopts Tim who had lost both of his parents at various points in the character's history as his son.
The follow-up story arc in Batman,introduceswho is Batman's son with.
Although originally inBruce's coupling with Talia was implied to be consensual, this arc ret-conned it into Talia forcing herself on Bruce.
Batman, along with Superman and Wonder Woman, reforms the Justice League in the new Justice League of America series, and is leading the newest incarnation of the.
However, though Batman is shown to possibly perish at the end of the arc, the two-issue arc "Last Rites", which leads into the crossover storylines "", shows that Batman survives his helicopter crash into the Gotham City River and returns to the Batcave, only to be summoned to the Hall of Justice by the JLA to help investigate the 's death.
The story ends with Batman retrieving the god-killing bullet used to kill Orion, setting up its use in "Final Crisis".
In the pages of Final Crisis Batman is reduced to a charred skeleton.
In Final Crisis 7 Wayne is shown witnessing the passing of the first man.
Wayne's "death" sets up the three-issue miniseries in which Wayne's ex-proteges compete for the "right" to assume the role of Batman, which concludes with Grayson becoming Batman, while Tim Drake takes on the identity of.
Dick and Damian continue as Batman and Robin, and in the crossover storyline "", what appears to be Bruce's corpse is reanimated as abut is later shown that Bruce's corpse is one of Darkseid's failed Batman clones.
Dick and Batman's other friends conclude that Bruce is alive.
Bruce's return set upan ongoing series which focused on Wayne franchising the Batman identity across the globe, allowing Dick and Damian to continue as Gotham's Dynamic Duo.
Bruce publicly announced that Wayne Enterprises will aid Batman on his mission, known as "Batman, Incorporated".
However, due to rebooted continuity that occurred as part of DC Comics' 2011 relaunch of all of its comic books,Dick Grayson was restored as Nightwing with Wayne serving as the sole Batman once again.
The relaunch also interrupted the publication of Batman, Incorporated, which resumed its story in 2012—2013 with changes to suit the new status quo.
Cultural impact and legacy Batman has become a pop culture icon, recognized around the world.
The character's presence has extended beyond his comic book origins; events such as the release of the 1989 Batman film and its accompanying merchandising "brought the Batman to the forefront of public consciousness".
In an article commemorating the sixtieth anniversary of the character, wrote, "Batman is a figure blurred by the endless reinvention that is modern mass culture.
He is at once an icon and a commodity: the perfect cultural artefact for the 21st century.
The first adaptation of Batman was as a daily newspaper comic strip which premiered on October 25, 1943.
That same year the character was adapted in the 15-partwith becoming the first actor to portray Batman on screen.
While Batman never had a radio series of his own, the character made occasional guest appearances in starting in 1945 on batman comics for free when Superman voice actor needed time off.
A second movie serial,followed in 1949, with taking over the role of Batman.
In the 1964 publication of 's collection of short stories Come Back, Dr.
Caligari, Barthelme wrote "The Joker's Greatest Triumph".
Batman is portrayed for purposes of spoof as a pretentious French-speaking rich man.
Television The television series, starringpremiered in January 1966 on the television network.
Inflected with a sense of humor, the show became a pop culture phenomenon.
In his memoir, Back to the Batcave, West notes his dislike for the term 'camp' as it was applied to the 1960s series, opining that the show was instead a orand a deliberate one, at that.
The series ran for 120 episodes; ending in 1968.
In between the first and second season of the Batman television series, the cast and crew made the theatrical film 1966.
The popularity of the Batman TV series also resulted in the first animated adaptation of Batman in ; the Batman segments of the series were repackaged as and Batman with Robin the Boy Wonder which produced thirty-three episodes between 1968 and 1977.
From 1973 until 1986, Batman had a starring role in ABC's series; which was animated by.
Batman as depicted in the award-winning 1990s In 1992, premiered on the television network; produced by and featuring as the voice of Batman.
The series received considerable acclaim for its darker tone, mature writing, stylistic design, and thematic complexity compared to previous superhero cartoons, in addition to multiple.
The series' success led to the theatrical film 1993as well as various TV series; including, and each of which also featured Conroy as Batman's voice.
The futuristic series also took place in this same animated continuity and featured a newer, younger voiced bywith the elderly Bruce Wayne again voiced by Conroy as a mentor.
In 2004, an unrelated animated series titled made its debut with voicing Batman.
In 2008, this show was replaced by another animated series,featuring 's voice as Batman.
In 2013, a new -animated series titled made its debut, with voicing Batman.
In 2014, the live-action TV series premiered on the Fox network, featuring as a 12-year-old Bruce Wayne.
In 2018, when the series was renewed for its fifth and final season it was announced that Batman would make an appearance in the show's series finale's flash-forward.
For the season 1 finale ofportrays Batman as a stunt double.
To commemorate the 75th anniversary of the character, Warner Bros aired the television, that was also posted on DC's YouTube channel.
Film as the eponymous character in the 1989 film.
In 1989, released the live-action feature film ; directed by and starring as the title character.
The film was a huge success; not only was it the top-grossing film of the year, but at the time was the fifth highest-grossing film in history.
The film also won the.
The film's success spawned three sequels: 19921995 and 1997 ; the latter two of which were directed by instead of Burton, and replaced Keaton as Batman with andrespectively.
The second Schumacher film failed to outgross any of its predecessors and was critically panned; causing Warner Bros.
In 2005, was released by Warner Bros.
Its sequel, 2008set the record for the highest grossing opening weekend of all time in the U.
The film also won two Academy Awards, including for the late.
It was eventually followed by 2012which served as a conclusion to Nolan's.
Since 2008, Batman has also starred in various direct-to-video animated films under the banner.
Kevin Conroy has reprised his voice role of Batman for several of these films, while others have featured celebrity voice actors in the role; including, and.
A -themed version of Batman was also featured as one of the protagonists in the animated film 2014with providing the voice.
Arnett reprised the voice role for the spin-off film 2017.
In 2016, began portraying Batman in the with the release of the filmdirected by.
Affleck also made a cameo appearance as Batman in 's film 2016.
Affleck reprised the role in the 2017 filmalso set in the DC Extended Universe.
On October 23, 2018, Dante Pereira-Olson was cast as a young Bruce Wayne in the upcoming film.
Video games See also: Since 1986, Batman has starred in multiple video games, batman comics for free of which were adaptations of the various cinematic or animated incarnations of the character.
Among the most successful of these games is the series.
The first installment, 2009was released by to critical acclaim; review aggregator reports it as having received 92% positive reviews.
It was followed by the sequel 2011which also received widespread acclaim and holds a Metacritic ranking of 94%.
A prequel game titled 2013 was later released by.
A fourth game titled 2015 has also been released by Rocksteady.
As with most animated Batman productions, has provided the voice of the character for these games; excluding Arkham Origins, in which the younger Batman is voiced by.
In 2016, Telltale Games released adventure game, which changed the Wayne Family's history as it is depicted in the Batman mythos.
A sequel, titledwas released in 2017.
Interpretations Gay interpretations Further information: Gay interpretations of the character have been part of the academic study of Batman since psychologist asserted in in 1954 that "Batman stories are psychologically homosexual.
The Batman type of story may stimulate children to homosexual fantasies, of the nature of which they may be unconscious.
Professor of film and cultural studies argues the validity of a queer reading of Batman, and that gay readers would naturally find themselves drawn to the lifestyle depicted within, whether the character of Bruce Wayne himself were explicitly gay or not.
He also identifies a homophobic element to the vigor with which mainstream fandom rejects the possibility of a gay reading of the character.
In 2005, painter Mark Chamberlain displayed a number of depicting both Batman and Robin in suggestive and sexually explicit poses, prompting DC to threaten legal action.
Creators associated with the character have expressed their own opinions.
Writer Alan Grant has stated, "The Batman I wrote for 13 years isn't gay.
Only Joel Schumacher might have had an opposing view.
Obviously as a fictional character he's intended to be heterosexual, but the basis of the whole concept is utterly gay.
You can help by.
April 2019 Batman has been the subject of psychological study for some time, and there have been a number of interpretations into the character's psyche.
In Batman and Psychology: A Dark and Stormy Knight, Travis Langley argues that the concept of archetypes as described by psychologists and is present in the Batman mythos, such that the character represents the "shadow archetype".
This archetype, according to Langley, represents a person's own dark side; it is not necessarily an evil one, but rather one that is hidden from the outside and concealed from both the world and oneself.
Langley argues that Bruce Wayne confronts his own darkness early in life; he chooses to use it to instill fear in wrongdoers, with his bright and dark sides working together to fight evil.
Langley uses the Jungian perspective to assert that Batman appeals to our own need to face our "shadow selves".
Travis Langley also taught a class called Batman, a title he was adamant about.
I called it Batman," Langley says.
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See for more info and the previous timeline.
May 1939 See also:, and The character Ma Hunkel Who later becomes Red Tornado was debuted by Sheldon Mayer.
See for more info and next timeline.
Storylines are listed in publication order.
Compiled without respect for canon or "current" continuity.
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Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of thea non-profit organization.

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